How Does a Composting Toilet Work in a House?

Toilet in the house is not only a matter of hygiene but everyday comfort, convenience, and health. Anyway, it’s nice to send guests to a clean toilet room, rather than a cramped booth with a hole on the floor. To maintain urban comfort in a house, a composting toilet should be used. It is located right in the house and does not require a connection to the sewer.

The modern age requires comfort technologies not only in urban apartments but also in country houses and cottages. Arriving at the cottage on weekends, the city dweller does not want to feel a sharp contrast in the amenities like in the toilet.

What Is a Composting Toilet?

This is a kind of dry toilet that treats human waste through a biological process known as composting. This procedure makes the organic matter to decompose and changes human waste to compost-like material not destroying all the pathogens.

How does a Composting Toilet Work?

This is the major question that arises, and so many people do not have a particular answer to it. It can be a complicated question to a person that does not have a composting toilet. If you are new to this kind of dry toilet, then you are in the right place.

In general, a composting toilet is designed in the same way as a regular toilet. There are two key differences: filler is used instead of water, and waste accumulates in the container. In a composting toilet, unpleasant odors are eliminated, and the flies have no way to get to the contents.

Therefore, how does composting toilet work? Here are essential points on how this toilet works;

  • Fill it with a filler; Before use, the toilet must be filled with filler. It is poured into the tank, as well as into the storage container. It should be about two-thirds, and two centimeters in the container.
  • Further, the procedure is the same as with an ordinary toilet. After use, we make a “drain.” Scroll the handle so that the peat filler falls into the storage container.
  • To do this, the handle on the upper container must first be turned in one direction – the mixture will crumble on one side, then turn in the other direction – the mixture will be strewed on the other side. So the waste is sprinkled evenly. The amount of peat that needs to be sprinkled with waste can be controlled; it is determined by the amount of rotation of the handle.
  •  After filling, the bucket is emptied into a compost pile, where the final processing of human waste into compost takes place. This is an excellent fertilizer. The container should be emptied when it is about half full. To do this, it must be removed from the housing and discarded, for example, into a compost pit.

For full composting, it will take several months, after which the waste can be used as fertilizer. To remove the container, completely disassemble the toilet. The container is easy to carry, and it has a convenient carrying handle.

How is a Composting Toilet Emptied?

• Remove the sealing rail or casing between the toilet wall and the device
• Remove the drain hose from a canister or other container and place it on the hose support.
• Pull the compost stirrer into the back position.
• Disconnect the ventilation pipe from the toilet.
• Lift the device out of the building.
• Tilt the device so that the axle with wheels can be replaced.
• Move the device to the place of emptying or put the compost mass in the compost tank, and put a new tank in the toilet.
The peat mixture helps in absorbing liquid waste. If one person uses the toilet or, for example, the family uses it, but only on weekends, then the peat powder manages to process liquid waste. If the family uses the toilet constantly, then the peat is not able to absorb all the liquid.

To solve this problem, there is a drainage and filter system. Liquid seeps through the drain into the lower compartment, where it is filtered and drained by a hose. The drain hose should be sloped. You can take it to the drainage ditch, compost pit, septic tank, well, special container, or as some craftsmen do, they simply dig a pipe in the ground.

A composting toilet differs from a regular powder one in that it is not just a storage device: the recycling process does not take place in the compost heap but in the toilet device itself. Storage tanks have a fairly large volume.

After filling one under the toilet opening, the next one is filled too, and the filled tank is set aside to ripen the compost. Such toilets operate on a batch basis. Whereby when the first tank ends the process, the next one is filling up.

Before the operation, a layer of soil or peat is poured onto the bottom of the toilet bowl, ten centimeters thick — for seed. The process of processing sewage into fertilizer is carried out under the influence of soil microorganisms.

So the same thing happens in the tank as in the soil during the decomposition of organic residues and the formation of humus. Humus is a valuable fertilizer. For convenience, some models are
equipped with a rotating stand on which receiving tanks are mounted.

When filling one container, the stand is rotated, and a second one appears under the hole. This type of composting toilets is called a carousel. There are other varieties, for example, drum – the tank is fixed on the axis, and periodically it needs to be scrolled by a special handle so that the compost is mixed.

Waste containers are quite roomy – 200-500 litres. By the end of the composting process (after at least nine months), the weight of the contents decreases several times, the product in the tank does not at all resemble what it was at the beginning of the process – in appearance and smell it looks like hummus which is.

And the tanks themselves are equipped with wheels for ease of movement. Waste tanks are located under the toilet if it is a separate building, or in the basement.

This comforting toilet is needed not only in spring and summer but also in the cold season. And using an ordinary toilet in the autumn-winter period, you can catch a cold and get seriously ill. An alternative to a regular toilet nowadays is the dry toilet. It is environmentally friendly and beneficial in terms of obtaining fertilizer with pure humus.

In appearance, the dry toilet has a plastic box made according to the type of seat, covered with a lid that reclines. Dry toilets can be different, but the processing is the same: they provide the set temperature, humidity, or other components, technology, which contributes to the rapid biological decomposition of the mass, which results in dry humus.

Why is Composting Toilet is Preferred?

Many owners opt for a dry composting toilet. It is safe to use, and the waste processed in a compost toilet is used to fertilize plants.
• It does not need electricity in the process of processing the waste, but at a price generally, several orders of magnitude lower compared to an electric dry toilet.
• If you compare it with a portable one, the composting toilets also have an advantage over it, since it does not need to fill in special liquids for waste processing. And the most crucial plus in the dry composting toilet is the fact that “at the output” compost fertilizer of good quality is obtained.

Therefore, summer residents are recently using a dry compost toilet in their summer cottages and even suburban homes, if there is no way to the sewer.

Design features of Dry Compost Toilet

The compostable dry toilet has several positive aspects:
• the compost toilet is dry, it does not create conditions for fermentation, as in an electric one, and chemicals are not added, as in a portable one, but only peat and fine sawdust;
• it can be freed from the compost obtained only one time in 11-12 months;
• there is no need to wash the working volume, the decomposition of the filled mass occurs due to the evaporation of excess moisture;
• filler of a compost toilet (peat and sawdust) promotes the conversion of mass into compost, which, as a fertilizer, is very much appreciated by summer residents and gardeners;
• the toilet does not have an unpleasant odor, like portable and electric due to “wet” fermentation;
• the compost toilet comes with a pipe for ventilation and a hose for drainage; such a toilet does not attract flies to itself.

An essential condition for a compost toilet is its volume, and it should be large, preferably at least 110 liters.
For those who like to make everything on their own at the cottage, a version of a compost toilet made by themselves is effective. The advantage of compost comparing to any other toilets models is that you can do it yourself without much effort.

Only it is desirable to equip it on a sloping and air-blown area, in any household premises: in a barn or a separately equipped place. There must be no moisture near: it should not be placed next to the shower.

The main components:

• base from wooden boards;
• plastic case;
• removable standard toilet seat.

The Composting toilet is a dry toilet with a separate compartment for urine and feces. It uses a special toilet, in which feces and urine are naturally separated and stored separately in special containers under the toilet (the urine container is buried in the ground to prevent freezing and connected to the toilet with a special hose). The low humidity of feces does not allow decay, fermentation, odor, and flies.

This toilet does not use flushing water. On the contrary, feces need to be sprinkled with sawdust, wood ash, or soil after each visit to the toilet. This is done to reduce the humidity of the waste and prevent its smell. In tanks for feces and urine, special ventilation is provided, which allows you to make composted toilets in the
house, which is especially true in the winter season.

When filling the container with feces, an empty container is put in its place, and the full container is put into storage in a specially designated place. Separately collected urine is stored for six months and then used as a valuable fertilizer.

What To Do With Waste?

On average, a person releases 50 liters of feces and 500 liters of urine per year. Urine and feces contain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, as well as a trace of other elements. The urine of a healthy person is considered sterile. The urine of public toilets must be kept at a temperature of 20 degrees for six months.

In this case, it is considered safe for any crops, since during this time in an alkaline environment (pH about 9) all pathogenic microorganisms will die.

Feces contain a large number of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, so they require long-term composting. After removing the container with feces from the compost toilet with a separate collection of waste, it must be kept for six months in a separate place.

Then the half-decayed waste is introduced into a compost heap with other plant residues, and after another year, it turns into a hygienically safe compost rich in nutrients.

It is not recommended to fertilize the compost from feces less than a month before harvesting, and also to use for vegetables and fruits that are consumed raw. Experiments on the use of fertilizers obtained using a composting toilet on agricultural crops showed an increase in yield up to seven times, depending on the initial soil composition.

According to average data, it is believed that 1 litre of land per season is enough 1-2 litres of urine.

Three Tips for keeping a Composting Toilet

1. Before the first use of the toilet (and after each time), you need to sprinkle the container for feces with a coating: earth, ash, lime, sawdust, etc .;

2. Cleaning the surface of the toilet is done with a small amount of water with the addition of soda, vinegar, or citric acid, you do not need to use household chemicals.

3. When cleaning the surfaces of the toilet bowl, avoid getting liquid in a container with feces.

A composting toilet does not require a water or sewage connection. It can be installed directly on the ground, it is necessary to raise the floor slightly, and cut a suitable hole in the wooden floor (a stencil is included
with the instruction). The entrance to the house is obtained through one step.

Thanks to the heat-insulated tank and the patented oxygen supply system directly inside the product, the temperature inside the compost mass rises to 50 degrees, which speeds up the composting process and allows you to get ready-made compost in 2 months! It is also comfortable to use this model in the winter.

You can use this device to recycle food waste. The molded, one-piece construction prevents the spread of bad smell and the penetration of rodents. The unique ventilation system inside the housing and the ventilation pipe remove odors. Excess fluid escapes through the drain hose. You can collect it in a canister (included) and then use it as fertilizer.

Ready-made compost is easily removed through the door at the bottom of the tank. Ready compost can be used immediately under trees or bushes. There will be no smell, no type of toilet waste.

When used in the country by one family, compost can be removed only once a year. Correctly calculated height and structural stability provide convenient operation even for tall and full people.

The Set Includes a Comfortable Thermal Seat.

• does not require frequent emptying,

• also composts kitchen waste,

• efficiently processes waste into compost in 8-10 weeks,

• emptying the tank is not accompanied by an unpleasant odor,

• the tank can be positioned so that the compost door is on any convenient side,

• cast thermally insulated construction,

• the location of the ventilation pipe can be changed,

• wear-resistant thermal seat.

The composting toilet is useful in that it can be installed at home. If the room is tiny, then exhaust ventilation will help fight the smell. Depending on the model, the composting toilet may have a fan for ventilation. If there is no electricity in the room, it is better to choose a model without a fan, since it works from an outlet.

Everyone wants to live comfortably, and therefore seek to replace conventional wooden toilets that are out of fashion. They now prefer the composting toilets which are suitable: environmentally friendly, convenient, subsequently bringing high-quality fertilizer.

But, you need to make sure that you understand how a composting toilet works. This is because, in one way or another, you may install it in your house. How does a composting toilet work? This question has been critically analyzed with the above tips. So, you don’t need to worry about how you will handle it. By following the procedure of how it works, you will be able to live a comfortable life.

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